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IPM Integrated Management of Insects, Diseases and Weeds

Smart Solutions for Safer Farming

Integrated Management of Insects, Diseases, and Weeds (IPM) is an agricultural practice designed to address the challenges posed by pests, diseases, and weeds in common bean cultivation. It provides a holistic approach to crop protection while prioritizing environmental sustainability and food safety. IPM focuses on maintaining a well-balanced ecosystem of beneficial organisms and employs a diverse set of biological, mechanical, physical, and cultural methods to achieve effective and long-lasting protection against pests and diseases. This technology aims to reduce the reliance on chemical pesticides, promoting natural control mechanisms, and ensuring crop productivity and food security. IPM can be adapted to various soil types and climatic conditions, making it a versatile and environmentally responsible solution for common bean growers.


This technology is TAAT1 validated.


Scaling readiness: idea maturity 7/9; level of use 7/9

Cost: $$$ 5,000 USD

Installation of rearing colonies of parasitoid wasps

6,000 USD

Operation cost per year

0.5 - 1 USD

Coating 1kg of seed

25 - 35 USD/Ha

Pre-emergence herbicides


Open source / open access


  • Pest and Disease Susceptibility: Common beans are susceptible to various pests and diseases, which can significantly reduce productivity.
  • Inappropriate Pesticide Use: The use of chemical pesticides poses health and environmental risks and can lead to the development of pesticide-resistant pest biotypes.
  • Food Insecurity and Income Loss: Failure to manage pests and diseases effectively can result in food insecurity and loss of income for bean growers.
  • Distorted Natural Control Mechanisms: Overreliance on chemical pesticides can disrupt natural control mechanisms in the ecosystem.


  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM): A holistic approach combining various methods to protect crops and reduce the need for chemical pesticides.
  • Reduced Chemical Pesticide Use: Aims to minimize pesticide usage, reducing health and environmental risks and preventing pesticide-resistant pests.
  • Balanced Beneficial Organism Populations: Focuses on maintaining balanced populations of beneficial organisms through understanding their life cycles and interactions with the environment.
  • Diverse Techniques: Encompasses various strategies, including natural predator release, sterile insect release, mechanical interventions, and cultural practices for pest, disease, and weed management.
  • Protection Against Multiple Threats: Effectively addresses different threats, such as disease-transmitting aphids, offering solutions for common bean pests, diseases, and weeds.
  • Adaptability: Applicable across various soil and climate conditions, with adaptable techniques for local contexts.
  • Minimized Chemical Applications: Reduces chemical use through methods like seed coating and pre-emergent herbicides, promoting safer and eco-friendly pest and disease management.

Key points to design your business plan

Using IPM contributes to sustainability by reducing chemical pesticide usage and promoting biodiversity conservation, thereby enhancing ecosystem health and resilience. Additionally, it improves crop productivity, ensures food security, and reduces pesticide-related health risks.

For the cost structure, consider the following:

  • Rearing colonies of parasitoid wasps requires inexpensive materials, with installation costs of around US $5,000 and an additional operating cost of US $6,000 per year.

  • Coating seed with insecticide and fungicide ranges from US $0.50 to $1 per kilogram.

  • Pre-emergence herbicides cost approximately US $25 to $35 per hectare.

Training is crucial for proper implementation, as it ensures effective use of IPM practices. Permits from national plant health agencies are necessary for the rearing and release of biocontrol technology. Additionally, intellectual property rights associated with fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides must be considered, as they are commercially owned.

To effectively implement IPM, collaboration with development institutions, agro-input suppliers, local service providers, and agricultural extension services is essential. Lastly, estimating the profitability of IPM adoption is vital for assessing its economic benefits.


Positive or neutral impact

Adults 18 and over
Positive high
The poor
Positive medium
Under 18
Positive medium
Positive medium

Positive or neutral impact

Climate adaptability
It adapts really well
Adaptability for farmers
It helps a lot
It helps them grow and thrive
Carbon footprint
It reduces emissions a lot
It makes a big difference
Soil quality
It makes the soil healthier and more fertile
Water usage
It uses the same amount of water

Countries with a green colour
Tested & adopted
Countries with a bright green colour
Countries with a yellow colour
Egypt Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burundi Burkina Faso Democratic Republic of the Congo Djibouti Côte d’Ivoire Eritrea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Cameroon Kenya Libya Liberia Madagascar Mali Malawi Morocco Mauritania Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo Rwanda Zambia Senegal Sierra Leone Zimbabwe Somalia South Sudan Sudan South Africa Eswatini Tanzania Togo Tunisia Chad Uganda Western Sahara Central African Republic Lesotho
Countries where the technology has been tested and adopted
Country Tested Adopted
Benin Tested Adopted
Burundi Tested Adopted
Cameroon Tested Adopted
Central African Republic Tested Adopted
Côte d’Ivoire Tested Adopted
Democratic Republic of the Congo Tested Adopted
Ethiopia Tested Adopted
Ghana Tested Adopted
Kenya Tested Adopted
Malawi Tested Adopted
Mozambique Tested Adopted
Nigeria Tested Adopted
Rwanda Tested Adopted
Senegal Tested Adopted
South Sudan Tested Adopted
Tanzania Tested Adopted
Togo Tested Adopted
Uganda Tested Adopted
Zimbabwe Tested Adopted

This technology can be used in the colored agro-ecological zones. Any zones shown in white are not suitable for this technology.

Agro-ecological zones where this technology can be used
AEZ Subtropic - warm Subtropic - cool Tropic - warm Tropic - cool

Source: HarvestChoice/IFPRI 2009

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals that are applicable to this technology.

Sustainable Development Goal 2: zero hunger
Goal 2: zero hunger
Sustainable Development Goal 13: climate action
Goal 13: climate action
Sustainable Development Goal 3: good health and well-being
Goal 3: good health and well-being
Sustainable Development Goal 12: responsible production and consumption
Goal 12: responsible production and consumption
Sustainable Development Goal 15: life on land
Goal 15: life on land

The technology strategies involves several steps:

1. Identification and Thresholds

  • Begin by identifying the type and number of harmful and beneficial organisms on the farm.
  • Establish critical thresholds in the community structure when economic injury to common bean crops occurs.

2. Monitoring and Surveillance

  • Monitor pests using simple tools such as traps, handheld magnifying glasses, or advanced high-resolution cameras mounted on drones for rapid surveillance over large areas.
  • Inspect weeds between emergence and canopy closure, as well as post-harvest to prevent carry-over.

3. Insect and Disease Surveys

  • Conduct insect and disease surveys simultaneously.
  • Repeat surveys at different growth stages, including emergence, early flowering, and pod filling.

4. Utilizing Software Tools

  • Use software tools and participate in specialized social media platforms to track and identify pests and natural enemies.
  • Refine IPM strategies based on data and insights obtained.

5. Threshold-Based Actions

  • When the threshold population of harmful organisms is reached, implement prescribed actions.
  • Avoid precautionary spraying with agro-chemicals and instead focus on specific IPM strategies tailored to the situation.

Last updated on 30 April 2024